Parkinson's disease - a disorder that affects nerve cells

Parkinson's disease is a disorder that affects nerve cells, that controls muscle movement.Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive disorder of the nervous system.

Causes:

The disease is caused by the death of cells in one of the movement control centers of the brain.Genetic Factors play a role in some cases.Environmental Factors such as rural living,well water,herbicide use and exposure to pesticides,as factors that may be linked to Parkison’s .

Symptoms:

Depression, sleep problems, including restlessness and nightmares, emotional changes, including increased fear, irritability, and feelings of insecurity, Incontinence (loss of bladder control), constipation, changes in handwriting, dementia (increased problems with mental functions), tremor, or trembling in hands, arms, legs, jaw, and face, rigidity or stiffness of limbs and trunk, slowness of movement, postural instability or impaired balance and coordination., muscle rigidity,digestion problems,low blood pressure,temperature sensitivity,leg discomfort,balance,difficulty in swallowing, chewing, and speaking,urinary problems,skin problems.

Treatment:

Treatment approaches include medication and surgical therapy. Other treatment approaches, including general lifestyle modifications (rest and exercise), physical therapy, speech therapy.The most commonly used medications are amantadine, anticholinergic medications, and selegiline,levodopa/carbidopa (Sinemet® or Atamet®) ,levodopa/benserazide (Madopar,levodopa/carbiopa (Sinemet CR®),levodopa/benserazide (Madopar HBS®),COMT inhibitors:,entacapone (Comtan,tolcapone (Tasmar®),Dopamine agonists:bromocriptine (Parlodel®) ,pergolide (Permax®) pramipexole (Mirapex®) ,ropinirole (Requip®) ,cabergoline(Dostinex®) ,apomorphine (Apokyn®) ,lisuride (Dopergine®),Amantadine,Amantadine (Symmetrel®),Anticholinergic medications:Biperiden HCL (Akineton®) ,Benztropine mesylate (Cogentin®) ,Procyclidine (Kemadrin®) ,Trihexyphenidyl (Artane®) Selegiline preparations:Eldepryl® ,Atapryl® ,Carbex® .There are several surgical options available, these include: Pallidotomy, Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS), Thalamic stimulation, Pallidal stimulation, Subthalamic DBS.

Prevention:

There is no known way to prevent Parkinson's disease.

Alternative Treatment:

Ayurvedic medicine (mucuna puriens), Broad beans,St John's Wort- Dopamine influences positive feelings in the brain,Botulinum toxin A- This is a bacterium that causes food poisoning (botulism) but has proven to be effective in reducing hand, head and voice tremors, Acupuncture, massage, and yoga may help relieve some symptoms of the disease by loosening tight muscles. Some alternative practitioners recommend the use of herbs and nutritional supplements, such as vitamins A, B, C, E, and the minerals calcium, selenium, and zinc.

Links:

http://www.ninds.nih.gov/

www.parkinsons.org/

http://www.pdf.org

www.integrativemedicine.arizona.edu.

http://www.parkinson.org/

http://www.wemove.org/

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/

http://www.faqs.org/

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